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Military Operations in Papua | Operasi Militer Di Papua


English Translation below


During the period of 1961 to 1998, it was recorded by the National Commission on Human Rights that at least 44 military operations had been carried out in the Papua region. The military operation model is divided into 2 stages, that is (1) before the implementation of Act of Free Choice (ind: PEPERA) with the aim to win the referendum, and (2) after the implementation of the Act of Free Choice with the aim to maintain the results of the referendum, abolish the elections, and crush the Free Papua Movement (OPM).


Special Operation to Win the Pepera (1961 - 1969)

Objective:

  1. To destroy the resistance groups while increasing the deployment of Indonesian National Armed Forces;

  2. Ensure the Kepala Burung (Bird's Head) region is won;

  3. Ensure victory on D-day;

  4. Secure the results

Commander: Major Ali Martopo


Operation Jayawijaya (1961 - 1962)

Objective: To establish guerrilla bases and prepare the formation of outposts as a means to take control of Papua.

Commander: Benny Moerdani (Minister of Defense / Commander of the Armed Forces from 1983-1988, and the Defense and Security Minister from 1988-1993)


Operation Wisnumurti (1963 - 1965)

Objective: To uphold the authority of the Government of Indonesia, ensure security and order as well as to assist the civilian government and develop West Irian Jaya, specifically to counter the separatist movement.

Commander: Men / Army Commander Gen. A. Yani


Operation Consciousness (1965)

Objective: To destroy the OPM resistance in Manokwari, as well as to emphasize the authority of the Regional Military Command XVII (Tjendrawasih) over the whole of Papua.

Commander: Military Commander Brigadier R. Kartidjo


Operation Bharatayudha (1966 - 1967)

Objective: To destroy the resistance and win the PEPERA

Commander: Brigadier R. Bintoro


Annahilation Campaign (1967 - 1970)

Concentrated in the Ayaamaru, Teminabuan and Inanwatan regions


Operation Authority (1967)

Objective: Win the PEPERA for Indonesia

Commander: Brigadier Sarwo Edi


ACT OF FREE CHOICE (1969)

Determination of People's Opinion


Final Operation (1971 - 1977)

Objective: To secure Papua in time for the 1971 Elections

Commander: Major Ahmad


Operation Koteka (1977 - 1978)

Objective: To implement the Indonesian Government's policy of replacing the traditional Koteka (penis sheath) with "ordinary" clothing

Commander: Brigadier General Acub Zainal


Operation Smile (1970 - 1980)

Objective: Reduction of military operations in Papua as it raises public fear


Operation Raven I (1985 - 1986)

Objective: To pursue OPM Leader Victus Wangmang

Commander: Military Commander Major General H. Simanjuntak


Operation Raven II (1986)

Objective: To destroy the Gerakan Pengacau Keamanan (GPK*) and to identify the people's loyalty.

Commander: Major General Setiana


*GPK literally translates to Security Distrubrance Movement, used by the New Order to refer to the Free Papua Movement


Operation Cassowary I (1987 - 1988)

Objective: To physically destroy the GPK, especially in the area around the border

Commander: Major Wismoyo Arismunandar


Operation Cassowary II (1988 - 1989)

Objective: To destroy the OPM along the PNG border


Operation Rajawali I (1989 - 1990)

Objective: To destroy the OPM along the PNG border

Commander: Major General Abinowo


Operation Rajawali II (1990 - 1995)

Objective: To destroy the OPM along the PNG border


Selama perdiode dari tahun 1961 sampai dengan tahun 1998, tercatat oleh Tim Komnas HAM setidaknya telah dilancarkan 44 (empat puluh empat) operasi militer di wilayah Papua. Model operasi militer tersebut terbagi menjadi 2 (dua) tahap, yaitu sebelum peleksanaan PEPERA dengan tujuan untuk memenangan PEPERA dan sesudah pelaksanaan PEPERA dengan tujuan untuk mempertahankan hasil PEPERA, menyukseksan Pemilu, dan menumpas gerakan OPM.


Operasi Khusus Pemenangan Pepera (1961 - 1969)

Tujuan:

  1. Untuk menghancurkan kelompok perlawanan dan sekaligus memperluas sebaran pasukan ABRI

  2. Memastikan daerah kepala burung Pepera dimenangkan

  3. Memastikan kemenangan pada hari-H

  4. Mengamankan hasilnya

Komandan: Mayor Ali Martopo


Operasi Jayawijaya (1961 - 1962)

Tujuan: Membentuk basis-basis gerilya dan mempersiapkan pembentukan pos terdepan bagi upaya menguasai Papua.

Komandan: Benny Moerdani (Menhanham/Pangab periode tahun 1983-1988 dan Menhankam periode tahun 1988-1993)


Operasi Wisnumurti (1963 - 1965)

Tujuan: Menegakkan kewibawaan Pemerintah Indonesia, menjamin keamanan dan ketertiban serta membantu pemerintah sipil dan membangun Irian Jaya Barat, khususnya untuk mengkounter gerakan separatis.

Komandan: Men/Pangad Jend. A. Yani


Operasi Sadar (1965)

Tujuan: Mematahkan perlawanan OPM di Manokwari, tetapi juga menegaskan kekuasaan Kodam XVII/Tjendrawasih atas seluruh wilayah Papua.

Komandan: Pangdam Brigjend R. Kartidjo


Operasi Bharatayudha (1966 - 1967)

Tujuan: Menghancurkan perlawanan dan memenangkan PEPERA

Komandan: Brigjend R. Bintoro


Operasi Tumpas (1967 - 1970)

Dikonsentrasikan di wilayah Ayaamaru, Teminabuan, dan Inanwatan


Operasi Wibawa (1967)

Tujuan: Memenangkan PEPERA untuk Indonesia

Komandan: Brigjend Sarwo Edi

PEPERA (1969)

Penentuan Pendapat Rakyat


Operasi Pamungkas (1971 - 1977)

Tujuan: Mengamankan Papua untuk menyambut pelaksanaan Pemilu 1971

Komandan: Mayor Ahmad

Operasi Koteka (1977 - 1978)

Tujuan: Menjalankan kebijakan Pemerintahan Indonesia yang memaksa mengganti pakaian adat Koteka ke pakaian biasa

Komandan: Brigjen Acub Zainal


Operasi Senyum (1970 - 1980)

Tujuan: Mengurangi operasi militer di Papua karena menimbulkan ketakutan masyarakat


Operasi Gagak I (1985 - 1986)

Tujuan: Mengejar Pimpinan OPM Victus Wangmang

Komandan: Pangdam Mayjen H. Simanjuntak

Operasi Gagak II (1986)

Tujuan: Menghancurkan Gerakan Pengacau Keamanan dan deteksi loyalitas rakyat

Komandan: Mayjen Setiana

Operasi Kasuari I (1987 - 1988)

Tujuan: Menghancurakn GPK secara fisik terutama di daerah sekitar perbatasan

Komandan: Mayjend. Wismoyo Arismunandar


Operasi Kasuari II (1988 - 1989)

Tujuan: Menghancurkan OPM di sepanjang perbatasan dengan PNG

Operasi Rajawali I (1989 - 1990)

Tujuan: Menghancurkan OPM di sepanjang perbatasan dengan PNG

Komandan: Mayjen Abinowo


Operasi Rajawali II (1990 - 1995)

Tujuan: Menghancurkan OPM di sepanjang perbatasan dengan PNG